Robin Gardner

Alumni Distinguished Graduate Professor of Nuclear and Chemical Engineering, Director of CEAR

  • 919-515-3378
  • Burlington Laboratory 2110

Dr. Robin Gardner’s research interest is in industrial and medical radiation and radioisotope measurement applications. The general approach taken has been to develop detailed models (most often by Monte Carlo simulation), benchmark them with experimental data, and then use them for calibration or interpretation and optimum equipment design purposes. The areas of interest include the optimum design and use of short-lived radioisotope tracers for unit processes, nuclear gauges, nuclear analyzers, nuclear oil well logging devices and computed tomography devices. Stemming from this research there has been an undergraduate text publication and the Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes has been established.

Education

Ph.D. 1961

Fuel Technology

Pennsylvania State University

M.S. 1958

Chemical Engineering

North Carolina State University

B.S. 1956

Chemical Engineering

North Carolina State University

Research Description

Dr. Gardner's research interest is in industrial and medical radiation and radioisotope measurement applications.

Publications

Study on the PGNAA. measurement of heavy metals in aqueous solution by the Monte Carlo Library Least-Squares (MCLLS) approach
Zhang, Y., Jia, W. B., Gardner, R., Shan, Q., & Hei, D. Q. (2018), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 132, 13–17.
A distance correction method for improving the accuracy of particle coal online X-ray fluorescence analysis - Part 1: Theoretical dependence of XRF intensity on the distance
Zhang, Y., Jia, W. B., Gardner, R., Shan, Q., Zhang, X. L., Hou, G. J., & Chang, H. P. (2018), Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 147, 118–121.
Development of a method for on-line determination of chlorine impurity in crude oil by using fast neutrons
Chang, H. P., Meric, I., Sudac, D., Nad, K., Obhodas, J., & Gardner, R. P. (2017), Fuel , 209, 643–649.
A distance correction method for improving the accuracy of particle coal online X-ray fluorescence analysis - Part 2: Method and experimental investigation
Zhang, Y., Jia, W. B., Gardner, R., Shan, Q., Zhang, X. L., Hou, G. J., & Chang, H. P. (2017), Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 141, 235–238.
A method to improve the sensitivity of neutron porosity measurement based on D-T source
Liu, J. T., Zhang, F., Gardner, R. P., Hou, G. J., Zhang, Q. Y., Zhang, Y., … Hu, C. (2016), Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 33, 879–884.
Personal reflections on the highlights and changes in radiation and radioisotope measurement applications
Gardner, R. P., & Lee, K. O. (2015), Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 116, 28–31.
A method to evaluate hydraulic fracture using proppant detection
Liu, J. T., Zhang, F., Gardner, R. P., Hou, G. J., Zhang, Q. Y., & Li, H. (2015), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 105, 139–143.
A new G-M counter hybrid dead-time correction model
Hou, G. J., & Gardner, R. P. (2015), Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 116, 125–129.
An analytical approach for treating background in spectral analysis measurements
Miller, I., Holmes, T. W., & Gardner, R. P. (2015), Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 116, 87–91.
On the ill-conditioning of the multiphase flow measurement by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis
Meric, I., Johansen, G. A., Mattingly, J., & Gardner, R. P. (2014), Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 95, 401–404.
A dual system for monitoring the positions of multiple radioactive tracer pebbles in scaled pebble bed reactors
Wang, Z. J., Lee, K. O., & Gardner, R. P. (2014), Nuclear Technology, 185(3), 259–269.
Prediction of pebble motion in pebble-bed reactors using Monte Carlo molecular dynamics simulation
Lee, K. O., & Gardner, R. P. (2013), Nuclear Science and Engineering, 174(3), 264–285.
Development of a simple detector response function generation program: The CEARDRFs code
Wang, J. X., Wang, Z. J., Peeples, J., Yu, H. W., & Gardner, R. P. (2012), (Vol. 70, pp. 1166–1174).
Enhancement of the intrinsic gamma-ray stopping efficiency of Geiger-Muller counters
Meric, I., Johansen, G. A., Holstad, M. B., Calderon, A. F., & Gardner, R. P. (2012), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment, 696, 46–54.
Implementation of the elemental library stratified sampling technique on the GUI-based Monte Carlo library least squares (MCLLS) approach for EDXRF analysis
Li, F. S., & Gardner, R. P. (2012), (Vol. 70, pp. 1243–1249).
Light yield measurement method for milled nanosize inorganic crystals
Li, A., Smith, N., Hehlen, M. P., McKigney, E. A., & Gardner, R. (2012), (Vol. 70, pp. 1219–1222).
Molecular Dynamics simulation for PBR pebble tracking simulation via a random walk approach using Monte Carlo simulation
Lee, K. O., Holmes, T. W., Calderon, A. F., & Gardner, R. P. (2012), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 70(5), 827–830.
Monte Carlo simulation of the nonlinear full peak energy responses for gamma-ray scintillation detectors
Peeples, J. L., & Gardner, R. P. (2012), (Vol. 70, pp. 1058–1062).
On the treatment of ill-conditioned cases in the Monte Carlo library least-squares approach for inverse radiation analyzers
Meric, I., Johansen, G. A., Holstad, M. B., Mattingly, J., & Gardner, R. P. (2012), Measurement Science & Technology, 23(5).
Accuracy and borehole influences in pulsed neutron gamma density logging while drilling
Yu, H. W., Sun, J. M., Wang, J. X., & Gardner, R. P. (2011), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 69(9), 1313–1317.
Monte Carlo investigation and optimization of coincidence prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis
Wang, J. X., Calderon, A., Peeples, C. R., Ai, X. Y., & Gardner, R. P. (2011), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment, 652(1), 572–577.
Monte Carlo modelling of gamma-ray stopping efficiencies of Geiger-Muller counters
Meric, I., Johansen, G. A., Holstad, M. B., & Gardner, R. P. (2011), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment, 636(1), 61–66.
Produced water characterization by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis
Meric, I., Johansen, G. A., Holstad, M. B., Wang, J. X., & Gardner, R. P. (2011), Measurement Science & Technology, 22(12).
Use of an iterative convolution approach for qualitative and quantitative peak analysis in low resolution gamma-ray spectra
Gardner, R. P., Ai, X. Y., Peeples, C. R., Wang, J. X., Lee, K., Peeples, J. L., & Calderon, A. (2011), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment, 652(1), 544–549.
Use of the CEARXRF GUI-based Monte Carlo-Library Least-Squares (MCLLS) code for the micro-focused EDXRF analyzer
Gardner, R. P., & Li, F. S. (2011), X-Ray Spectrometry, 40(6), 405–410.
A proposed benchmark problem for cargo nuclear threat monitoring
Holmes, T. W., Calderon, A., Peeples, C. R., & Gardner, R. P. (2011), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment, 652(1), 52–57.
On replacing Am-Be neutron sources in compensated porosity logging tools
Peeples, C. R., Mickael, M., & Gardner, R. P. (2010), (Vol. 68, pp. 926–931).
On the future of Monte Carlo simulation for nuclear logs
Gardner, R. P., & Sood, A. (2010), (Vol. 68, pp. 932–935).
Semi-empirical modeling of gamma-ray density logs with the possibility of obtaining more information
Li, F. S., & Gardner, R. P. (2010), (Vol. 68, pp. 936–940).
Status of the Monte Carlo library least-squares (MCLLS) approach for non-linear radiation analyzer problems
Gardner, R. P., & Xu, L. B. (2009), (Vol. 78, pp. 843–851).
On the use of prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis for determining phase amounts in multiphase flow
Wang, J. X., Li, F. S., & Gardner, R. P. (2008), Measurement Science & Technology, 19(9).
Design and preliminary Monte Carlo calculations of an active Compton-suppressed LaBr3(Ce) detector system for TRU assay in remote-handled wastes
Kulisek, J. A., Hartwell, J. K., McIlwain, M. E., & Gardner, R. P. (2007), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment, 580(1), 226–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2007.05.060
Non-poisson counting statistics of a hybrid G-M counter dead time model
Lee, S. H., Jae, M., & Gardner, R. P. (2007), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms, 263(1), 46–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2007.04.041
Using gamma-gamma coincidence measurements to validate Monte Carlo generated detector response functions
Metwally, W. A., Gardner, R. P., & Sood, A. (2007), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms, 263(1), 50–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2007.04.137
The Monte Carlo code CEARCPG for coincidence prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis
Han, X., & Gardner, R. P. (2007), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms, 263(1), 320–325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2007.04.238
CEARCPG: A Monte Carlo simulation code for normal and coincidence prompt-gamma-ray neutron activation analysis
Han, X. G., Gardner, R. P., & Metwally, W. A. (2006), Nuclear Science and Engineering, 155(1), 143–153.
CEARPGA II: A Monte Carlo simulation code for prompt-gamma-ray neutron activation analysis
Zhang, W. C., & Gardner, R. P. (2005), Nuclear Science and Engineering, 151(3), 361–373. https://doi.org/10.13182/NSE05-A2556
Coincidence counting for PGNAA applications: Is it the optimum method?
Metwally, W. A., Mayo, C. W., Han, X., & Gardner, R. P. (2005), Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 265(2), 309–314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-005-0826-2
Development of a Monte Carlo - Library Least-Squares code package for the EDXRF inverse problem
Gardner, R. P., & Guo, W. (2005), Powder Diffraction, 20(2), 146–152. https://doi.org/10.1154/1.1913722
Status of software for PGNAA bulk analysis by the Monte Carlo - Library Least-Squares (MCLLS) approach
Gardner, R. P., Zhang, W., & Metwally, W. A. (2005), Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 264(1), 221–228. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-005-0697-6
A new NaI detector arrangement for efficient detection of high energy gamma-rays
Gardner, R. P., Metwally, W. A., & Han, X. G. (2005), Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 264(1), 133–137. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-005-0685-x
A study of the real-time deconvolution of digitized waveforms with pulse pile up for digital radiation spectroscopy
Guo, W. J., Gardner, R. P., & Mayo, C. W. (2005), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment, 544(3), 668–678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2004.12.036
Stabilization of prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) spectra from NaI detectors
Metwally, W. A., & Gardner, R. P. (2004), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment, 525(3), 518–521. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2004.02.011
Two-dimensional diagonal summing of coincidence spectra for bulk PGNAA applications
Metwally, W. A., Gardner, R. P., & Mayo, C. W. (2004), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment, 525(3), 511–517. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2004.02.012
Using the Monte Carlo - Library Least-Squares (MCLLS) approach for the in vivo XRF measurement of lead in bone
Guo, W. J., Gardner, R. P., & Todd, A. C. (2004), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment, 516(03-Feb), 586–593. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2003.09.030
The Monte Carlo approach MCPUT for correcting pile-up distorted pulse-height spectra
Guo, W. J., Lee, S. H., & Gardner, R. P. (2004), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment, 531(3), 520–529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2004.05.089
Elemental PGNAA analysis using gamma-gamma coincidence counting with the library least-squares approach
Metwally, W. A., Gardner, R. P., & Mayo, C. W. (2003), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms, 213(Jan), 394–399. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(03)01660-4
Optimization of the steady neutron source technique for absorption cross section measurement by using an Sb-124-Be neutron source
Sun, J., & Gardner, R. P. (2003), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms, 213(Jan), 22–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(03)01527-1
Preliminary studies on K and L coincidence spectroscopy for optimizing the in vivo XRF measurement of lead in bone
Guo, W. J., Gardner, R. P., & Metwally, W. A. (2003), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms, 213(Jan), 574–578. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(03)01674-4
A Monte Carlo simulation approach for generating NaI detector response functions (DRFs) that accounts for non-linearity and variable flat continua
Gardner, R. P., & Sood, A. (2003), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms, 213(Jan), 87–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(03)01539-8
A new Monte Carlo assisted approach to detector response functions
Sood, A., & Gardner, R. P. (2003), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms, 213(Jan), 100–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(03)01540-4
A semi-empirical model for a Sr-90 beta-particle transmission thickness gauge for aluminum alloys
Gardner, R. P., Metwally, W. A., & Shehata, A. (2003), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms, 213(Jan), 357–363. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(03)01582-9
The analog linear interpolation approach for Monte Carlo simulation of PGNAA: The CEARPGA code
Zhang, W. C., & Gardner, R. P. (2003), Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms, 213(Jan), 116–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(03)01544-1
Preliminary studies on combining the K and L XRF methods for in vivo bone lead measurement
Lee, S. H., Gardner, R. P., & Todd, A. C. (2001), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 54(6), 893–904.
Monte Carlo simulation for IRRMA
Gardner, R. P., & Liu, L. Y. (2000), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 53(4-5), 837–855. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(00)00233-5
NaI detector neutron activation spectra for PGNAA applications
Gardner, R. P., Sayyed, E., Zheng, Y. S., Hayden, S., & Mayo, C. W. (2000), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 53(4-5), 483–497. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(00)00198-6
Simulation of Compton camera imaging with a specific purpose Monte Carlo code
Earnhart, J., Prettyman, T., Lestone, J., & Gardner, R. (2000), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 53(4-5), 673–680. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(00)00203-7
Steady neutron source measurement method for Sigma(a) and Sigma(s) in geological samples
Sood, A., Gardner, R. P., & Gray, T. K. (2000), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 53(4-5), 603–616. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(00)00235-9
A feasibility study of a coincidence counting approach for PGNAA applications
Gardner, R. P., Mayo, C. W., El-Sayyed, E. S., Metwally, W. A., Zheng, Y., & Poezart, M. (2000), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 53(4-5), 515–526. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(00)00206-2
A new G-M counter dead time model
Lee, S. H., & Gardner, R. P. (2000), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 53(4-5), 731–737. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(00)00261-X
Monte Carlo simulation of neutron porosity oil well logging tools: combining the geometry-independent fine-mesh importance map and one-dimensional diffusion model approaches
Gardner, R. P., & Liu, L. Y. (1999), Nuclear Science and Engineering, 133(1), 80–91. https://doi.org/10.13182/NSE99-A2074
NaI detector nonlinearity for PGNAA applications
Gardner, R. P., & Mayo, C. W. (1999), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 51(2), 189–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(98)00183-3
Monte Carlo aided treatments of the nonlinear inverse PGNAA measurement problem for various continuous on-line applications
Gardner, R. P., Guo, P., Sood, A., Mayo, C. W., Gehrke, R. J., & Dobbs, C. L. (1998), Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 233(1-2), 105–107. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02389655
Black box radiation gauges and analyzers: Dream or reality?
Gardner, R. P., Guo, P., Ao, Q., & Dobbs, C. L. (1997), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 48(10-12), 1273–1288. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(97)00120-6
Development of the specific purpose Monte Carlo code CEARXRF for the design and use of in vivo X-ray fluorescence analysis systems for lead in bone
Ao, Q., Lee, S. H., & Gardner, R. P. (1997), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 48(10-12), 1403–1412. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(97)00136-X
Feasibility of neutron activation methods for measurement of sodium and aluminum in green liquor
Gardner, R. P., Guo, P., Wang, Y. Y., Sood, A., Lee, S. H., & Dobbs, C. L. (1997), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 48(10-12), 1355–1372. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(97)00131-0
On extending the accurate and useful counting rate range of GM counter detector systems
Gardner, R. P., & Liu, L. Y. (1997), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 48(10-12), 1605–1615. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(97)00161-9
Optimization of in vivo X-ray fluorescence analysis methods for bone lead by simulation with the Monte Carlo code CEARXRF
Ao, Q., Lee, S. H., & Gardner, R. P. (1997), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 48(10-12), 1413–1423. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(97)00137-1
Single peak versus library least-squares analysis methods for the PGNAA analysis of vitrified waste
Gardner, R. P., Sood, A., Wang, Y. Y., Liu, L., Guo, P., & Gehrke, R. J. (1997), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 48(10-12), 1331–1335. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(97)00127-9
Spectral gamma-ray log interpretation algorithms using the Monte Carlo multiply scattered components approach
Guo, P., Ao, Q., & Gardner, R. P. (1997), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 48(10-12), 1373–1383. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(97)00132-2
A geometry-independent fine-mesh-based Monte Carlo importance generator
Liu, L.-Y., & Gardner, R. P. (1997), Nuclear Science and Engineering, 125(2), 188–195. https://doi.org/10.13182/NSE97-A24265
A preliminary investigation of a beta-particle transmission gauge for seam quality determination
Titus, K. J., Clapp, T. G., Zhu, Z., & Gardner, R. P. (1997), Textile Research Journal, 67(1), 23–34. https://doi.org/10.1177/004051759706700107

View all publications via NC State Libraries

Grants

Proposal for a Consortium for Nonproliferation Enabling Capabilities
US Dept. of Energy (DOE)(7/31/14 - 7/30/19)
Development of Computational Models of Tool Response to Neutron Sources for Radioisotope Source Replacement
US Dept. of Energy (DOE)(7/25/13 - 12/31/13)
Associates Program - Nuclear Techniques in Oil Well Logging
Weatherford International Ltd.(1/01/13 - 12/31/13)
Associates Program - Nuclear Techniques in Oil Well Logging
China Oilfield Services Limited(1/01/12 - 12/31/15)
Associates Program - Nuclear Techniques in Oil Well Logging
Real Time Instruments (RTI)(1/01/12 - 12/31/12)
Development of Alternatives to the Radioisotope Neutron Sources Used in the Well Logging Industry
US Dept. of Energy (DOE)(1/11/12 - 10/30/12)
Production of Gamma-Ray Spectral Libraries for Nuclear Threat Cargo Monitoring
US Dept. of Energy (DOE)(6/01/10 - 5/31/15)
Development of Subspace-Based Hybrid Monte Carlo-Deterministic Algorithms For Reactor Physics Calculations
Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC(10/01/09 - 9/30/13)
Mathematical Methods to Improve Detection and Identification of Radioactive Materials
Raytheon(8/14/08 - 6/01/10)
Associates Program-Nuclear Techniques in Oil Well Logging Supporting Center For Engineering Applications of Radiosotopes
Pathfinder Energy Services(7/01/08 - 12/31/10)